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- Direct Materials Price Variance:
- The Most Rigorous Of All Standards Is Thea Normal Standardb Realistic Standardc Ideal Standardd Conceivable Standard
- Explain How To Use Cost Variance Analysis With Activity
- What Is The Materials Price Variance? What Is The Materials Quantity Variance? What Is The Labour
- Standard Costing

The standard provides a measure of how much material should be used for a unit of product and how much each pound of raw material should cost. Calculate the cost of beef budgeted for the dinner and the total beef variance (i.e., the difference between budgeted and actual cost). These wages would give rise to an unfavorable rate variance.

The labor efficiency variance is also called the labor time or usage variance. A number of the variances reported Accounting Periods and Methods under a standard costing system will drive management to take incorrect actions to create favorable variances.

- However, the low pay rate workers may not be as efficient.
- BoSan operates very close to a JIT system for materials purchases, with virtually all material acquired during the quarter being used in manufacturing activities.
- Answer is incorrect because a favorable overhead volume variance means actual production levels exceed budgeted production levels.
- For this reason, the illustrations in this chapter are based on a complete standard cost method, rather than either of the partial methods.
- Third, it is unlikely that a single materials variance—the difference between the standard cost and the actual cost of the materials used—would be of any real value to management for effective cost control.

Points A and B are no longer relevant because they are based on the quantity purchased. The vertical difference between points C and D represents the materials quantity variance. Introduction A company can employ a cost accounting system that records manufacturing related activity using actual costs or standard costs . Under ledger account the concept of management by exception, material differences between expected performance and actual performance are investigated, whether favorable or unfavorable. If differences, referred to as variances, are not material, management will ignore them under the assumption that things proceed smoothly as expected.

## Direct Materials Price Variance:

Suggested answer overhead is composed only of variable costs. Actual overhead and predetermined amounts of overhead are most likely to be similar if overhead is composed primarily of variable costs.

The flexible budget is the debit to the materials control account. The difference between the debit and credit is the performance measurement, i.e., the price variance. Last year a firm budgeted $100,000 in fixed cash flow overhead costs. The firm’s PDOH rate is $10 per direct labor hour, half of which is due to variable overhead. The variance shows the over-or-under-absorption of fixed overheads during a particular period.

It combines the direct labor rate and efficiency variances. For this company, the variance is P1,900 U (P48,500 actual wages at actual hours – P46.600 standard wages at standard hours).

Assess the job that Simon did in “managing” the beef purchase by performing a variance analysis. A review of the accounting records shortly after the convention showed that 1,680 pounds of beef were purchased and consumed, costing the hotel $13,440. Although the combined variance of $14,000F is small, a more detailed analysis reveals the presence of sizable, offsetting variances. The variance is favorable and small, being less than 2% of the budgeted amount. The company has had considerable employee difficulties in recent months, so much so that management has hired a new production supervisor .

## The Most Rigorous Of All Standards Is Thea Normal Standardb Realistic Standardc Ideal Standardd Conceivable Standard

Computation of cost variances in as much detail as possible and process Cost Reconciliation statement. If actual profit is more than the budgeted profit, variance will be favourable and if actual profit is less than the budgeted profit, unfavourable variance will arise. Prepare a complete analysis of all variances, including a three-way analysis of overhead variances. The above overhead variances are also classified as Two-way, Three-way and Four-way variance. If revised budgeted quantity is more than the budgeted quantity; the variance is favourable; if revised budgeted quantity is less, the variance will be unfavourable. In a period, many class B workers were absent and it was necessary to substitute class B workers. Since the class A workers were less experienced with the job, more labour hours were used.

A graphic approach provides a different way to place emphasis on the flexible budgets and concepts involved. Point A represents the actual cost of material purchases. Points B, C and D represent the three flexible budgets that all fall on the flexible budget line. The slope of the flexible budget line is the standard price .

Now we are ready to include these variances in standard costing. The following additional symbols are used to illustrate the analysis of fixed overhead. The relationships in the analysis above are also illustrated in the graphic approach presented in Figure 10-2.

## Explain How To Use Cost Variance Analysis With Activity

It is easiest to update costs for the highest-dollar components of inventory on a frequent basis, and leave lower-value items for occasional cost reviews. The cost variance analysis is the most common performance evaluation tool when evaluating a cost center.

Answer , , and are incorrect because each is a likely cause of the variance. When the number of direct labor hours are reduced, without changing the standard number of hours, a favorable labor usage variance results because actual hours will be less than standard hours. Answer is incorrect because it would result from the direct labor hours increasing, with the standards held constant. Answers and are incorrect because they concern labor rate, not labor efficiency variances. Suggested answer Net factory overhead variance The three-way analysis calculates spending, efficiency, and production volume variances. However, regardless of whether two, three, or four-way analysis is used, the net factory overhead variance is the difference between actual total factory overhead and the total applied to the product.

A graphic approach for variable overhead analysis is presented in Figure 10-4. The vertical difference between points A and B represents the variable overhead spending variance. The vertical difference between points B and D represents the variable overhead efficiency variance. Since direct labor hours used and purchased are equal, A’ and C are not needed in the analysis. As you can see from the graph, the variable overhead efficiency variance is the difference between two point estimates, i.e., two points on the flexible budget line.

Therefore, the sooner management is aware of a problem, the sooner they can fix it. For that reason, the material price variance is computed at the time of purchase and not when the material is used in production. The difference between the actual level of activity and the standard activity allowed for the actual output x the variable part of the predetermined overhead rate is the variable overhead variance. When the actual quantity of materials used is less than the standard quantity allowed, the material a materials price variance is equivalent to a labor quantity variance is labeled as ____________. The unplanned production volume variance is a more useful measure of capacity utilization than the actual production volume variance because it results from a comparison of planned and actual capacity utilization. Referring back to the Expando Company budget in Chapter 9, recall that the planned production volume variance for March was $19,000 unfavorable. Since the actual variance for March is $40,000 unfavorable, the unplanned variance is $21,000 unfavorable.

## What Is The Materials Price Variance? What Is The Materials Quantity Variance? What Is The Labour

The labor efficiency variance is the difference between actual hours used and standard hours allowed multiplied by the ____________ hourly rate. Suppose that the business has set the direct materials usage at 10 units of materials for making one unit of product but uses 12 units of materials for each finished product during actual production. Direct materials cost is a main component of a product’s total cost along with direct labor cost and manufacturing overhead. Given the uncertainty of manufacturing costs affected by materials purchases and production processes, businesses often assign planned or expected costs to a product by using the so-called standard costing system. An estimating error occurs when a flexible budget based on the actual inputs of the allocation basis is used to separate the total variable overhead variance into two parts. When the estimates differ from the actual quantities consumed , an estimating error is included in the analysis. Although the size and direction of this effect is unknowable in actual practice, the concept is illustrated in Exhibit 10-16.

## Standard Costing

The behavioral problems associated with overhead variances are similar to those associated with the direct labor variances. This is understandable since variable overhead efficiency variances are derived from the direct labor efficiency measurement. As a result, when the variable overhead efficiency variance is used to evaluate individual department managers, it reinforces the temptation to overproduce and to de-emphasize quality. The production volume variance has the same effect since managers can cause the variance to be less unfavorable, or more favorable, by producing more than is needed. This avoids the implication in departmental performance reports that the production managers are somehow responsible for a variance that is planned based on budgeted sales. Of course another solution, as indicated earlier, is to use variance analysis at the plant level to monitor overall operations, but not as a way to micro manage at the departmental level. This variance is referred to as spending variance because it is caused by price changes or changes in operating conditions.

The material variance terms price and quantity are replaced with the terms ____________ and ____________ when computing direct labor variances. To calculate a price variance, multiply the ____________ quantity times the actual price and compare it to the actual quantity times the ____________ price. List some reasons why variances occur in direct labor actual costs and what the costs should have been, according to the standards. Managers should analyze the difference between actual direct material costs and budgeted direct material costs. Is a flexible budget needed in all standard cost variance calculations, i.e., for all variances? Could we calculate a production volume variance in normal historical job order costing? The following symbols are used to illustrate how direct labor costs are recorded and analyzed in standard costing.

Purchasing inferior materials can cause favorable price variances, but result in unfavorable quantity variances. This can easily cause behavioral conflicts between purchasing and production employees. Purchasing higher quality materials (i.e., higher design quality) than required by the product specifications tends to have the opposite effect. The goal is to purchase the desired quality and quantity of material at the lowest price and to use it as efficiently as possible.

A review of the firm’s standard cost records found that each completed unit requires 2.75 hours of labor at $14 per hour. Standard costing pays considerable attention to labor cost and labor efficiency, which are becoming a relatively unimportant factor of production. Courtney purchased and consumed 50,000 gallons of direct material that was used in the production of 11,000 finished units of product. The standard price of the direct material was $9 per pound. The standard cost per unit of materials cannot be determined until the end of the period.

One can compute the values for the red, blue, and green balls and note the differences. Or, one can perform the algebraic calculations for the price and quantity variances. Note that unfavorable variances offset favorable variances. A total variance could be zero, resulting from favorable pricing that was wiped out by waste. A good manager would want to take corrective action, but would be unaware of the problem based on an overall budget versus actual comparison.

For this reason, it is necessary to be familiar with the different approaches which can be applied in overhead variances. Using one price for the same materials facilities management control and simplifies accounting work. Materials price variance is un-favourable when the actual price paid exceeds the predetermined standard price.

## Calculate And Analyze Variable Manufacturing Overhead Variances

Suggested answer Labor rate A standard cost system differentiates the expected cost from the actual cost. Thus, deviations from expected results can be identified on a routine basis.

Summarize the behavioral conflicts associated with standard cost variance analysis. How does the production volume variance differ from the idle capacity variance?

Standard Costing Answers and are incorrect because the total O/H application rate and total expenses contain both variable and fixed rates. Answer is incorrect because the volume variance is only applicable to fixed, not variable, O/H. Responsibility – as a result, the production department or cost center that controls the direct materials into the production process is responsible. Sales variance is the difference between the actual value of sales achieved in a given period and budgeted value of sales.